سه شنبه ٠٤ مهر ١٣٩٦
 

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies

Abstract: PTuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries. © 2013 Baghaei et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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A 60 year-old man with AIDS and pneumonia

A 60 year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a four-week history of fever, non-productive cough and progressive dyspnea. He had been diagnosed with pneumonia in another hospital and had received broad-spectrum antibiotics including ceftriaxone, azithromycin and vancomycin with no improvement. The patient was referred to our hospital. On admission, the patients body temperature was 38.1°C, blood pressure was 95/50 mm Hg, pulse rate was 106 beats/min, respiratory rate was 27/min and percutaneous oxygen saturation was 78% in room air. Pulmonary auscultation revealed fine crackles over the lung bases. Intraoral candidiasis was also seen. Physical examination was otherwise normal. The patients white blood count was 2,600 cells/mm3 (Lymphocytes = 26%, neutrophils =70%) and the HIV ELISA test turned out to be positive which was confirmed by western blot assay. Laboratory investigations also revealed a low CD4+ cell count (72 cells/ µl), normal liver function, negative blood culture and three negative AFB sputum smear results. The PCR test performed on his nasopharyngeal swab was negative for both influenza A and influenza H1N1 virus...........

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Multidrug-resistant tubercular appendicitis: Report of a cases

Abstract: Acute tubercular appendicitis has remained a rare disease despite frequent cases of tuberculosis. The following study reports a patient with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pulmonary tuberculosis that developed acute appendicitis. Histopathology of the appendix was compatible with tuberculosis. The patient had a good outcome after surgery and medical therapy. © 2013 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology.

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Isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide plasma concentrations 2 and 6 h post dose in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs are related to drug resistance and treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of low plasma concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: The study was performed among 60 pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in-patients at a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital in Tehran, Iran. Drug samples were drawn 2 and 6 h post dose for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and pyrazinamide (PZA); related concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma drug concentrations, duration of treatment, age, sex, liver enzyme levels, administered doses and smoking status were evaluated and recorded. RESULTS: Among 60 patients recruited to the study, the mean (±SD) age was 54.2 (±20.9) years; 39 were female. The median peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of INH, RMP and PZA were respectively 2.5, 4.0 and 43.6 μg/ml; 81% of the patients had drug plasma concentrations lower than the target ranges for at least one administered drug. Respectively 49.1%, 92.5% and 8.7% of the patients had low concentrations of INH, RMP and PZA. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMP concentrations are below the reference range in most patients, while PZA is within the target range of the standard doses. © 2013 The Union.

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Knowledge and practice of asthmatic childrens parents about daily air quality

Abstract: Background: Knowledge and practice about air pollution are essential subjects in special groups such as cardio-pulmonary patients. For children with air pollution-related diseases, knowledge and attitude of parents play a determining role in this respect. Since providing a coherent curriculum needs evidence-based information, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of asthmatic childrens parents about daily air quality since asthmatic children are among the most vulnerable at-risk groups when it comes to air pollution. Materials and Methods: All parents of asthmatic children referred to the Pediatric Clinic of Masih Daneshvari Hospital during one year period (250 people) completed knowledge and practice questionnaire on air pollution. Knowledge questions consisted of familiarity with pollution standard index (PSI), ways to find out about it, respiratory effects of air pollution and etc. Practice questions consisted of reducing outdoor presence and activity of children and actions taken to reduce air pollution in polluted days. Results: In general, 3.2% of parents were familiar with PSI, 12.5% were aware of ways to find out about daily air quality, 65.2% were aware of air pollution respiratory effects, 65.6% were aware of air pollution effects on asthmatic children and 4.4% were aware of ineffectiveness of surgical masks in prevention of air pollution health effects. The obtained practice score ranged from 4 to 16, and the participants mean score was equal to 11.79. Conclusion: This study revealed that parents of asthmatic children were aware of air pollution hazards for their children and wanted to prevent them but they did not know how. Therefore, asthmatic children in Tehran are still exposed to risks of air pollution. © 2013 NRITLD, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Iran.

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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Complaints and housing characteristics in a population in the United States

Abstract: Context and Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adults. Early detection of the disorder and discovery of risk factors through standardized questionnaires will lead to reduction of the OSAS burden. The main aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of OSAS symptoms and examine their association with housing characteristics. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional study at a medical school. Methods: Demographic, housing and body measurement data on 5,545 individuals aged 16 years and over of various races were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We analyzed the probability of OSAS based on habitual snoring combined with daytime sleepiness and/or witnessed apnea. Univariate and multiple linear regression were used. Results: 9.8% of the men and 6.9% of the women reported symptoms suggestive of OSAS (habitual snoring, daytime sleepiness and/or apnea). The following prevalences of symptoms were found among males and females respectively: frequent snoring 35.1%, 22.3%, excessive daytime sleepiness 6.4%, 3.4% and frequent apnea 14.9%, 20.6%. Using multiple linear regression, OSAS symptoms were correlated with gender, age, body mass index (BMI), marital status and education. Regarding housing characteristics, mildew or musty smell and pets in the environment were associated with a high probability of OSAS. Conclusion: OSAS symptoms were more prevalent than in developing countries. The environment was an important risk factor, but environmental factors are easier to control and manage than other variables like BMI or socioeconomic status.

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No association between simian virus 40 and diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Iranian patients: A molecular and epidemiologic case-control study of 60 patients

Abstract: Background: Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is increasing in incidence on a worldwide basis and is linked to exposure to asbestos. Simian virus 40 (SV40), a DNA virus, was introduced inadvertently to human populations through contaminated polio vaccine during the years 1956-1963. It has been associated with various types of malignancy in animal experiments. There have been suggestions that SV40 might play a role in the pathogenesis of DMM. Objective: To evaluate the association between SV40 and DMM in Iranian patients. Method: In a case-control study between the years 2007-2008, isolated DNA from 60 paraffin blocks of patients with DMM and 60 controls was assessed to detect three human polyomaviruses (JCV, BKV, and SV40) using three different sets of primers by multiplex nested PCR analysis. We related the patients with diffuse malignant mesotheioma to possible sites of exposure to asbestos. Results: None of the DMMs nor any patient in the control group had SV40 genome on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All of the cases were SV40 T antigen negative. Conclusion: This study suggests that DMM is independent of SV40 infection in Iran. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Management of MDR-TB: Review of Irans experience

Emergence of drug resistance during the course of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and especially development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB is a major health hazard in many countries worldwide and is considered as an obstacle against TB control.............

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Molecular epidemiology analysis of TB in five regional states of Iran

Abstract:Background: The increasing prevalence of TB drug resistant strains in absence of recent transmission evidence, highlights the need for an improved control program, coupled with a need to improve detection rate and early diagnosis. IS6110-RFLP is a means of genotyping TB clinical samples. In this study IS6110- RFLP was used for specification and quick tracking of TB infection source, transmission and reactivation of infection, in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 258 TB patients from Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Shiraz and Ahwaz. DNA from positive cultures was extracted and digested by PVUII restriction enzyme. The digested sequences were separated based on the size on agar gel and then southern Blot was transferred on the membrane. IS6110 probe was marked by HRD and hybridized to the target parts along genome. Results: Sixty-one strains (24%) showed similar patterns (Recent transmission) and 197 strains (76%) showed different IS6110 patterns (Reactivation). Average number of IS6110 copies was between 10-11 bands. Frequency of IS6110 similar pattern was 11.46 in Afghan immigrants and 10.68 in Iranians. Conclusion: High diversity of IS6110, indicates that 76% of the patients have been infected through reactivation by different sources, while 24% have been infected due to recent transmission. Observing different antibiogram patterns in patients infected with the same strain indicated vast transmission of a single strain in the society. A susceptible strain can be changed into mono drug resistant and MDR strain in the transition period. © 2013 NRITLD, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Iran.

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Pulmonary manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease

Abstract:Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder, characterized by defects in superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes. The genetic defects in CGD induce failure to activate the respiratory burst in the phagocytes, leading to severe recurrent infections and unexplained prolonged inflammatory reactions that may produce granulomatous lesions. A noble advance in curative therapy for CGD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Since the most common site of involvement in CGD is the lung, the pulmonologists (pediatrics or adult) may be among the first to recognize the pattern of infection, inflammation and granuloma formation, leading to diagnosis of CGD. Pulmonologists need to be aware of different lung manifestations of CGD. © 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd.

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Venous thromboembolism in medical critically ill patients: Prevalence and incidence

Abstract:The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of venous thromboembolism among critically ill medical surgical patients. In this cross sectional and retrospective study, we observed 243 patients who were first admitted at the intensive care unit. Patients who were diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis or embolism either by clinical or paraclinical methods were enrolled. Among 243 patients of ICU ward 12 cases of them were confirmed to have thromboembolism (prevalence of 9.4%).But the incidence of venous thromboembolism after 48 hour of ICU admission was 5.2%(6 cases). Among 6 VTE cases 3 of them didnt receive any anticoagulant prophylaxis, 2 patients received LDUH 5000 unit twice a day and one patient received LMWH 60 mg daily but all developed VTE although receiving prophylaxis. We found that the prevalence of proximal lower limb DVT among medical-surgical critically ill patients remaining in the ICU for ≥3 days is about 9.4% and the incidence of that is about 5.2%. Further studies should be performed in order to assess the benefits and risks of venous thromboprophylaxis in Iranian patients. © 2013 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Uremic pleuritis in chronic hemodialysis patients

Abstract:Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are predisposed to several complications associated with pleural effusion. In addition, uremia can directly cause pleuritis. However, there are inadequate data about pathogenesis and natural course of uremic pleuritis. In this study, 76 chronic HD patients with pleural effusion admitted to the Respiratory Center of Masih Daneshvari Hospital, in Tehran, Iran between June 2005 and May 2011 were evaluated to figure out the etiology of their pleural disease. Among these patients, patients with uremic pleuritis were identified and studied. The rate of uremic pleuritis was 23.7%. Other frequent etiologies of pleural effusion were parapneumonic effusion (23.7%), cardiac failure (19.7%), tuberculosis (6.6%), volume overload, malignancy, and unknown. In patients with uremic pleuritis, dyspnea was the most common symptom, followed by cough, weight loss, anorexia, chest pain, and fever. Compared to patients with parapneumonic effusion, patients with uremic effusion had a significantly higher rate of dyspnea and lower rate of cough and fever. Pleural fluid analysis showed that these patients had a significantly lower pleural to serum lactic dehydrogenase ratio, total pleural leukocytes, and polymorphonuclear count compared to patients with parapneumonic effusion. Improvement was achieved in 94.1% of patients with uremic pleuritis by continuation of HD, chest tube insertion or pleural decortication; an outcome better than the previous reports. Despite the association with an exudative effusion, inflammatory pleural reactions in patients with uremic pleuritis may not be as severe as infection-induced effusions. Owing to the advancement in HD technology and other interventions, outcome of uremic pleuritis may be improved. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

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